A microwave oven is a relatively small, boxlike oven that raises the temperature of food by subjecting it to a high-frequency electromagnetic field. The microwaves are absorbed by water, fats, sugars, and certain other molecules, whose consequent vibrations produce heat. The heating thus occurs inside the food, without warming the surrounding air; this greatly reduces cooking time, and baking and other cooking tasks that require hours in a conventional oven can be completed in minutes in a microwave oven. Microwave ovens generate radiation at a frequency of about 2,450 megahertz by means of a magnetron, which is a kind of electron tube. Since the heating occurs by an absorption process, microwave ovens tend to cook certain foods unevenly or at different rates. For example, moist foods cook faster than less moist ones and moist outer layers tend to absorb most of the radiation before it can reach inner sections, which remain uncooked.
Microwave ovens also cannot brown or crisp foods on the outside. Most types of glass, Styrofoam, polyethylene, paper, and similar materials do not absorb the microwaves and hence do not heat up. Foods cannot be cooked in metal vessels in a microwave oven, however, because the metal blocks out the microwaves. Microwave ovens are subject to safety standards that ensure minimal levels of radiation leakage from them, and no significant health hazards are associated with such leakage.