The assassination of the ArchdukeArchduke Francis Ferdinand was the heir of the throne of Austria-Hungary; he hoped that his sympathy for the Slavs would ease the tension between Austria-Hungary and the Balkans. He and his wife had arranged to tour Bosnia. As the couple rode through Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, an Asian by the name of Gavrillo Principe jumped on their car and fired two shots. Francis and Sophie, did almost instantly, Gavirle Principe, was linked to a Serbian terrorist group called the Block hand. The Assignation gave Austria-Hungary a good reason to crush Serbia, a lay time emerge in the Balkans.
But first they gained Germanys promise to support them in any action they took against Serbia. Then they sent Serbia a list of Humiliating demands on July 23. Serbia accepted most of the demands and offered to have the rest settled by an international conference. Austria-Hungary rejected the offer and declared war on Serbia on July 28 1914. It was expected to be a quick victory. The western frontGermany had a war plan witch had been prepared by Alfred von Schliffer in 1905.
Schliffen was the chief of the German General staff; witch was a group of officials who provided advice on military operations. The plan assumed Germany would have to fight both France and Russia a quick defeat of France while Russia was slowly mobilizing. After they defeated France they would have to deal with Russia. If war came Germany would have to strike first. After the plan was put in motion, the system of military alliances almost assured a general European war.
The plan said that there was suppose to be 2 wing of the German army to come in and crush the French arm in a pinchers move. The left wing would be smaller to defeat Germany along side of France. The larger right wing was supposed to invade French in through Belgium, encircle and capture the capitol of France and then move east. This plan relied on a big right wing. The Belgin army was fighting tough and holding up the Germans but only for a short time. By Aug.
16, 1914 the right wing of the German army could begin its pincher move. They drove back the French and a small British force in southern Belgium. They then swept into France but instead of the army swinging west around Paris according to the plan one part of the wing perused the retreating French troops. They moved east toward the Marne River that left the Germans open to attack from the rear. General Joseph Joffery was the commander of all the French forces.
He stationed his forces nerve the Marne River, east of Paris. He prepared for battle. The first battle of the Marne began September sixth and by the ninth the German forces began to withdraw. This battle was a big victory for the Allies. After this victory the Germans lost hope of defeating France quickly.
Moltke the chief of the German general staff was replaced by Eric von falkenhyan. The German army stopped its retreat by the Aisne River. It was from there where the Germans and the Allies fought a series of battles at it was then known as the race to the sea. The Germans wanted to seize ports on the English Channel to cut off the vital supply lines between France and Britain. But at the first battle Ypres in Belgium the Allies stopped the Allies from advancing to the sea. The Battle lasted from mid oct.
to mid Nov. in late Nov. 1914 the war came to a deadlock. Along the Western front nobody was moving.
The battlefront extended across Belgium and northeaster France more than 450 miles to the border of Switzerland. This deadlock lasted for more that 3 and a half years. The Eastern frontThe Russian mobilization on the eastern front moved faster than Germany expected. Two Russian armies had gone deeply into the German territory of East Prussia, by late Aug. 1914 they learned that the two armies had become separated and they prepared a